Kitchener's Critical-evaluation MODEL: describes ethical decision making  that illustrates the role of virtues in making decisions.  Her model is based on 4 basic moral principles: autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice or fairness.


      Autonomy; the promotion of self-determinism, or the freedom of the client to choose their own direction. noteworthy is this is a values question as well.  It predisposes independence is good.  Discuss how this might be seen as not good?  such as with dependent youths


      Beneficence: refers to promoting good for others.  Ideally, counseling contributes to the growth and development of the client.  What is in the best interest for the client.  Who determines the best interest?  What values/morales are involved.


      Nonmalficence: men avoiding doing harm, which includes refraining from actions that risk hurting clients.  Discuss covert maleficence such as with the individual who chooses to not become culturally aware in an area were there is cultural diversity.  Also, the issue diagnostic labeling nd changing diagnosis for supposed benefit of the client.


      Justice/ fairness: refers to providing equal treatment to all people.  How is fairness or Justice decided?


Steps in Making ethical decisions


1. Identify the problem or dilemma; be aware of the different perspectives that may be used identify the problem


2. Identify the potential issues involved. Consider autonomy/beneficence/nonmaleficence/justice.


3. Review the relevant ethical guidelines. is there one or should there be one???


4. Obtain consultation; This is a good way to test your reasoning and decision making strategies.


5. Consider possible and probable courses of action


6. Enumerate the consequences of various decisions


7. Decide what appears to be the best course of action